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[[Гурӯҳ:Исмҳои local export = {}

--[=[ This function checks for things that could plausibly be a language code: two or three lowercase letters, two or three groups of three lowercase letters with hyphens between them. If such a pattern is not found, it is likely the editor simply forgot to enter a language code. ]=]

function export.err(langCode, param, text, template_tag) local ordinals = { "first", "second", "third", "fourth", "fifth", "sixth", "seventh", "eighth", "ninth", "tenth", "eleventh", "twelfth", "thirteenth", "fourteenth", "fifteenth", "sixteenth", "seventeenth", "eighteenth", "nineteenth", "twentieth" }

if not template_tag then template_tag = "" else if type(template_tag) ~= "string" then template_tag = template_tag() end template_tag = " (Original template: " .. template_tag .. ")" end local paramType = type(param) if paramType == "number" then ordinal = ordinals[param] param = ordinal .. ' parameter' elseif paramType == "string" then param = 'parameter "' .. param .. '"' else error("The parameter name is " .. (paramType == "table" and "a table" or tostring(param)) .. ", but it should be a number or a string." .. template_tag, 2) end

-- Can use string.find because language codes only contain ASCII. if not langCode or langCode == "" then error("The " .. param .. " (" .. (text or "language code") .. ") is missing." .. template_tag, 2) elseif langCode:find("^%l%l%l?$") or langCode:find("^%l%l%l%-%l%l%l$") or langCode:find("^%l%l%l%-%l%l%l%-%l%l%l$") then error("The language code \"" .. langCode .. "\" is not valid." .. template_tag, 2) else error("Please enter a " .. (text or "language code") .. " in the " .. param .. "." .. template_tag, 2) end end

local function do_entry_name_or_sort_key_replacements(text, replacements) if replacements.from then for i, from in ipairs(replacements.from) do local to = replacements.to[i] or "" text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, from, to) end end

if replacements.remove_diacritics then text = mw.ustring.toNFD(text) text = mw.ustring.gsub(text, '[' .. replacements.remove_diacritics .. ']', ) text = mw.ustring.toNFC(text) end

return text end

local Language = {}

function Language:getCode() return self._code end

function Language:getCanonicalName() return self._rawData[1] or self._rawData.canonicalName end

function Language:getOtherNames() return self._rawData.otherNames or {} end

function Language:getType() return self._rawData.type or "regular" end

function Language:getWikimediaLanguages() if not self._wikimediaLanguageObjects then local m_wikimedia_languages = require("Module:wikimedia languages") self._wikimediaLanguageObjects = {} local wikimedia_codes = self._rawData.wikimedia_codes or { self._code }

for _, wlangcode in ipairs(wikimedia_codes) do table.insert(self._wikimediaLanguageObjects, m_wikimedia_languages.getByCode(wlangcode)) end end

return self._wikimediaLanguageObjects end

function Language:getWikipediaArticle() if self._rawData.wikipedia_article then return self._rawData.wikipedia_article elseif self._wikipedia_article then return self._wikipedia_article elseif self:getWikidataItem() and mw.wikibase then self._wikipedia_article = mw.wikibase.sitelink(self:getWikidataItem(), 'enwiki') end if not self._wikipedia_article then self._wikipedia_article = mw.ustring.gsub(self:getCategoryName(), "Creole language", "Creole") end return self._wikipedia_article end

function Language:makeWikipediaLink() return "" .. self:getCanonicalName() .. "" end

function Language:getWikidataItem() return self._rawData[2] or self._rawData.wikidata_item end

function Language:getScripts() if not self._scriptObjects then local m_scripts = require("Module:scripts") self._scriptObjects = {}

for _, sc in ipairs(self._rawData.scripts or { "None" }) do table.insert(self._scriptObjects, m_scripts.getByCode(sc)) end end

return self._scriptObjects end

function Language:getScriptCodes() return self._rawData.scripts or { "None" } end

function Language:getFamily() if self._familyObject then return self._familyObject end

local family = self._rawData[3] or self._rawData.family if family then self._familyObject = require("Module:families").getByCode(family) end

return self._familyObject end

function Language:getAncestors() if not self._ancestorObjects then self._ancestorObjects = {}

if self._rawData.ancestors then for _, ancestor in ipairs(self._rawData.ancestors) do table.insert(self._ancestorObjects, export.getByCode(ancestor) or require("Module:etymology languages").getByCode(ancestor)) end else local fam = self:getFamily() local protoLang = fam and fam:getProtoLanguage() or nil

-- For the case where the current language is the proto-language -- of its family, we need to step up a level higher right from the start. if protoLang and protoLang:getCode() == self:getCode() then fam = fam:getFamily() protoLang = fam and fam:getProtoLanguage() or nil end

while not protoLang and not (not fam or fam:getCode() == "qfa-not") do fam = fam:getFamily() protoLang = fam and fam:getProtoLanguage() or nil end

table.insert(self._ancestorObjects, protoLang) end end

return self._ancestorObjects end

local function iterateOverAncestorTree(node, func) for _, ancestor in ipairs(node:getAncestors()) do if ancestor then local ret = func(ancestor) or iterateOverAncestorTree(ancestor, func) if ret then return ret end end end end

function Language:getAncestorChain() if not self._ancestorChain then self._ancestorChain = {} local step = #self:getAncestors() == 1 and self:getAncestors()[1] or nil

while step do table.insert(self._ancestorChain, 1, step) step = #step:getAncestors() == 1 and step:getAncestors()[1] or nil end end

return self._ancestorChain end

function Language:hasAncestor(otherlang) local function compare(ancestor) return ancestor:getCode() == otherlang:getCode() end

return iterateOverAncestorTree(self, compare) or false end

function Language:getCategoryName() local name = self:getCanonicalName()

-- If the name already has "language" in it, don't add it. if name:find("[Ll]anguage$") then return name else return name .. " language" end end

function Language:getStandardCharacters() return self._rawData.standardChars end

function Language:makeEntryName(text) text = mw.ustring.match(text, "^[¿¡]?(.-[^%s%p].-)%s*[؟?!;՛՜ ՞ ՟?!︖︕।॥။၊་།]?$") or text

if self:getCode() == "ar" then local U = mw.ustring.char local taTwiil = U(0x640) local waSla = U(0x671) -- diacritics ordinarily removed by entry_name replacements local Arabic_diacritics = U(0x64B, 0x64C, 0x64D, 0x64E, 0x64F, 0x650, 0x651, 0x652, 0x670)

if text == waSla or mw.ustring.find(text, "^" .. taTwiil .. "?[" .. Arabic_diacritics .. "]" .. "$") then return text end end

if type(self._rawData.entry_name) == "table" then text = do_entry_name_or_sort_key_replacements(text, self._rawData.entry_name) end

return text end

-- Add to data tables? local has_dotted_undotted_i = { ["az"] = true, ["crh"] = true, ["gag"] = true, ["kaa"] = true, ["tt"] = true, ["tr"] = true, ["zza"] = true, }

function Language:makeSortKey(name, sc) if has_dotted_undotted_i[self:getCode()] then name = name:gsub("I", "ı") end

name = mw.ustring.lower(name)

-- Remove initial hyphens and * local hyphens_regex = "^[-־ـ*]+(.)" name = mw.ustring.gsub(name, hyphens_regex, "%1")

-- If there are language-specific rules to generate the key, use those if type(self._rawData.sort_key) == "table" then name = do_entry_name_or_sort_key_replacements(name, self._rawData.sort_key) elseif type(self._rawData.sort_key) == "string" then name = require("Module:" .. self._rawData.sort_key).makeSortKey(name, self:getCode(), sc and sc:getCode()) end

-- Remove parentheses, as long as they are either preceded or followed by something name = mw.ustring.gsub(name, "(.)[()]+", "%1") name = mw.ustring.gsub(name, "[()]+(.)", "%1")

if has_dotted_undotted_i[self:getCode()] then name = name:gsub("i", "İ") end

return mw.ustring.upper(name) end

function Language:overrideManualTranslit() if self._rawData.override_translit then return true else return false end end

function Language:transliterate(text, sc, module_override) if not ((module_override or self._rawData.translit_module) and text) then return nil end

if module_override then require("Module:debug").track("module_override") end

return require("Module:" .. (module_override or self._rawData.translit_module)).tr(text, self:getCode(), sc and sc:getCode() or nil) end

function Language:hasTranslit() return self._rawData.translit_module and true or false end

function Language:link_tr() return self._rawData.link_tr and true or false end

function Language:toJSON() local entryNamePatterns = nil local entryNameRemoveDiacritics = nil

if self._rawData.entry_name then entryNameRemoveDiacritics = self._rawData.entry_name.remove_diacritics if self._rawData.entry_name.from then entryNamePatterns = {} for i, from in ipairs(self._rawData.entry_name.from) do local to = self._rawData.entry_name.to[i] or "" table.insert(entryNamePatterns, { from = from, to = to }) end end end

local ret = { ancestors = self._rawData.ancestors, canonicalName = self:getCanonicalName(), categoryName = self:getCategoryName(), code = self._code, entryNamePatterns = entryNamePatterns, entryNameRemoveDiacritics = entryNameRemoveDiacritics, family = self._rawData[3] or self._rawData.family, otherNames = self:getOtherNames(), scripts = self._rawData.scripts, type = self:getType(), wikimediaLanguages = self._rawData.wikimedia_codes, wikidataItem = self:getWikidataItem(), }

return require("Module:JSON").toJSON(ret) end

-- Do NOT use this method! -- All uses should be pre-approved on the talk page! function Language:getRawData() return self._rawData end

Language.__index = Language

function export.getDataModuleName(code) if code:find("^%l%l$") then return "languages/data2" elseif code:find("^%l%l%l$") then local prefix = code:sub(1, 1) return "languages/data3/" .. prefix elseif code:find("^[%l-]+$") then return "languages/datax" else return nil end end

local function getRawLanguageData(code) local modulename = export.getDataModuleName(code) return modulename and mw.loadData("Module:" .. modulename)[code] or nil end

function export.makeObject(code, data) if data and data.deprecated then require("Module:debug").track { "languages/deprecated", "languages/deprecated/" .. code } end

return data and setmetatable({ _rawData = data, _code = code }, Language) or nil end

function export.getByCode(code) if type(code) ~= "string" then error("The function getByCode expects a string as its first argument, but received " .. (code == nil and "nil" or "a " .. type(code)) .. ".") end

return export.makeObject(code, getRawLanguageData(code)) end

function export.getByName(name) local byName = mw.loadData("Module:languages/by name") local code = byName.all and byName.all[name] or byName[name]

if not code then return nil end

return export.makeObject(code, getRawLanguageData(code)) end

function export.getByCanonicalName(name) local byName = mw.loadData("Module:languages/canonical names") local code = byName and byName[name]

if not code then return nil end

return export.makeObject(code, getRawLanguageData(code)) end

function export.iterateAll() mw.incrementExpensiveFunctionCount() local m_data = mw.loadData("Module:languages/alldata") local func, t, var = pairs(m_data)

return function() local code, data = func(t, var) return export.makeObject(code, data) end end

--[[ If language is an etymology language, iterates through parent languages until it finds a non-etymology language. ]] function export.getNonEtymological(lang) while lang:getType() == "etymology language" do local parentCode = lang:getParentCode() lang = export.getByCode(parentCode) or require("Module:etymology languages").getByCode(parentCode) or require("Module:families").getByCode(parentCode) end

return lang end

return export]] сол



  1. Як сол мувофиқ ба давомнокии тақрибии вақти он мегирад Замин ба анҷом як инқилоби дар атрофи офтоб.
  2. Дар сол дошта давомнокии 365 рӯз, 5 соат, 48 дақиқа 48 сония тахминан. Аммо чунон ки метавонад дар як сол як рӯз 366 бо тақрибан 6 соат тарк бар, ки дар тақвими григорианӣ аст, баргузор ҳар чаҳор сол, тасҳеҳи ба тақвим илова кунед ва рӯзи дигар ба соли, ва дар ин сол номида мешавад кабиса.
  3. Дигар хатоњои ноболиғ, ки худ боиси ба истисно ба волоияти боло нест. Ыоидаьои махсуси он аст, ки агар дар як сол аст, ҷаҳиши як гуногун аз 4 (масалан, соли 2008) мебошад. Ба истиснои 1-уми ин аст, ки агар он якчанд аз 4, балки 100 аст, дигар кунеду (масалан, 2100). Ва ба истиснои 2 аст, ки якчанд 4, 100 ва низ ба 400 аст, ки пас кунеду (масалан, соли 2000). Барои мисол, дар соли 1914 буд, як ҷаҳиши нест ва 2114 нахоҳад буд, зеро онҳо якчанд аз 4 не, балки як сол кабиса соли 2004 буд, зеро он як бисёркаратаи аст
  4. Низ истифода мешавад, ки мӯҳлати ба тасвир дар давраи даврагӣ (давраи низ даъват ба тарљумаи) ягон сайёра. Мебошанд соли дигар ҳамчун тропикї нест. Ин соли тақвими григорианӣ соли 2015 буд.


  1. соат
  2. рӯз
  3. ҳафта
  4. Ммоҳ

  • англисӣ: year
  • испанӣ: año
  • итолиявӣ: anno
  • нидерландӣ: jaar
  • олмонӣ: Jahr
  • португалӣ: ano